The Pomeranian is a small, toy-sized dog. The head is wedge-shaped and in proportion with the body. The short muzzle is straight and fine. The stop is well pronounced. The color of the nose varies with coat color. The teeth meet in a scissors bite. The almond-shaped eyes are dark and medium in size. The small, erect ears are set high. The feathered tail lies straight and flat over the back. Dewclaws are sometimes removed. The Pom has a thick, double coat. The outer coat is long, straight and harsh in texture, while the undercoat is soft, thick and short. The coat is longer around the neck and chest area. Comes in a variety of coat colors and patterns including red, orange, white, cream, blue, brown, black, black and tan, wolf sable, orange sable, brindle and parti-color, which is white with colored markings.
The Pomeranian is a proud, lively little dog. It is intelligent, eager to learn, very loyal to its handler and family. The Pom is a wonderful companion and show dog. The breed’s docile temper and affectionate nature endear it to many. It is alert, inquisitive and active: one of the most independent of the toy breeds, it needs a firm, gentle hand. Its liveliness and spirit make it well-liked by persons who do not usually care for toy dogs. Pomeranians may be picky eaters. If they are properly introduced they usually get along with other dogs and household animals without any problems. Poms make good little watchdogs. Teach this dog early that it may bark a couple of times when the doorbell rings or when there are visitors, but then to keep quiet. Be very consistent about this. Poms have a delightful nature and do not cling to their handlers. This happy pup is good at learning tricks. Pomeranians need to see their owners as boss or they will become very demanding. If you allow your dog to tell YOU when and where to do things than you have a potential problem on your hands and you may not even realize it. It is not cute or smart, it’s dominance and will lead to bigger problems in the future if it has not already. Because of this breeds tiny size and its adorable Ewok-looking face, there are a very high percentage of Poms that fall victim toSmall Dog Syndrome, human induced behaviors where the dog believes he is pack leader to humans. This can cause many varying degrees ofbehavior problems, which are NOT Pomeranian traits, but behaviors brought on by the way they are treated by the humans around them. Behaviors include, but are not limited to separation anxiety, becoming willful, nervous, bold and sometimes temperamental, not hesitating to attack much bigger dogs. Guarding behaviors and excessive barking as they try and tell THEIR humans what THEY want them to do. They can become reserved with strangers, barking at them excessively, and sometimes growling, snapping and biting. Because most humans treat this tiny canine in such a manner that the dog does not see them as pack leader, they are not recommended for children. However, if a Pom is given rules to follow, limits as to what it is allowed to do, daily pack walks and a calm, self-assured pack leader who displays confident assertion towards the dog, this can be a well-rounded, mentally stable, trustworthy, wonderful family companion. Because of its size, it can make a good companion for an elderly person.
7 – 12 inches (18 – 30 cm)
3 – 7 pounds (1 – 3 kg)
Pomeranians are prone to dislocated patella (kneecap), slipped stifle, heart problems, eye infections, skin irritations and tooth decay and early loss. It is recommended that they are fed dry dog food or crunchy Milk Bones daily to help keep the teeth and gums in good condition. Newborn Pom puppies are very tiny and fragile. Three newborns can be held in the palm of one’s hand. Dams on the smaller side often need to deliver by cesarean section. When the dog is old it may become molted with bald spots.
The Pomeranian is good for apartment living. These dogs are very active indoors and will do okay without a yard. Be careful they do not overheat in hot weather. Exercise
Poms need a daily walk. Play will take care of a lot of their exercise needs, however, as with all breeds, play will not fulfill their primal instinct to walk. Dogs that do not get to go on daily walks are more likely to display behavior problems. They will also enjoy a good romp in a safe, open area off lead, such as a large, fenced-in yard. Life Expectancy About 15 years Grooming
The Pomeranian’s very long, double coat should be brushed frequently. If you work from the head, parting the coat and brushing it forward, it will fall neatly back in place, so the task, although time-consuming, is relatively easy. The cottony undercoat is shed once or twice a year. Dry shampoo when necessary. Clean the eyes and ears daily and take the dog for regular dental checkups.
The Pomeranian got its name from the region of Pomerania, which is now the area of Germany and Poland, where it was developed from the ancient Spitz breeds. The original Pomeranians were much larger, weighing up to 30 pounds, and worked as sheep herders. Marie Antoinette, Emile Zola, Mozart and Queen Victoria all owned Pomeranians. In 1870 the Kennel Club in England first recognized them as a breed. In 1888 Queen Victoria began breeding and showing the dogs. It was she who started breeding them down in size, making the breed very popular in England. The Pomeranian was first recognized by the AKC in 1888. Some of the Pom’s talents include: watchdog, agility and performing tricks. Poms make superior circus performers.
Feeding And Grooming
Recommended daily amount: 1/4 to 1/2 cup of high-quality dry food a day, divided into two meals.
Note: How much your adult dog eats depends on his size, age, build, metabolism, and activity level. Dogs are individuals, just like people, and they don’t all need the same amount of food. It almost goes without saying that a highly active dog will need more than a couch potato dog. The quality of dog food you buy also makes a difference — the better the dog food, the further it will go toward nourishing your dog and the less of it you’ll need to shake into your dog’s bowl.
For more on feeding your Pom, see our guidelines for buying the right food, feeding your puppy, and feeding your adult dog.
Coat Color And Grooming
The Pomeranian’s glory is his thick, stand-out, double coat with an undercoat of soft, thick, fluffy hair and a top coat of long, straight, shiny hair that’s harsh to the touch. The longer hair around the neck and chest forms a frill, enhancing the Pom’s proud appearance.
The Pom’s tail is another outstanding characteristic of the breed. The plumed tail with its profusion of hair lies flat, fanning out upon the dog’s back. Interestingly, when Poms are born, their tails don’t look like this. It may take months for the tail to develop this way.
One of the great things about Pomeranian’s is that they come in any color or pattern you can imagine in dogs, including black, black and tan, blue, blue and tan, chocolate, chocolate and tan, cream, cream sable, orange, orange sable, red, red sable, sable (black-tipped hairs on a background of silver, gold, gray, fawn, or brown), brindle (a base color of gold, red, or orange with strong black cross stripes), and white. Poms that are white with patches of any other color are called “parti-colored.”
Poms are considered to shed moderately. Males typically shed their undercoats once a year. Unspayed females often shed their undercoats when they are in season, after they deliver a litter, and whenever they’re stressed.
To keep hair off your clothes and furniture, brush and comb your Pom at least twice weekly with a wire slicker brush and metal comb. This distributes the skin’s natural oils, keeps the coat and skin healthy, and prevent mats or tangles. Be sure you brush and comb all the way down to the skin to remove all the shedding undercoat.
Start brushing your Pom at his head, and then part the coat and brush it forward so it falls back in place when you are finished. If you want, you can trim your Pom occasionally for neatness, especially on the feet, around the face and ears, and around the rear end.
You can bathe him as often as you like, whether that’s daily or monthly, as long as you use a mild dog shampoo and conditioner. If he starts to smell a little doggy between baths, sprinkle some baby powder on his coat, let it sit a few minutes, and then brush it out.
Other grooming needs include dental hygiene and nail care. Poms are prone to dental problems, so this is something that you must be especially watchful for. It’s a good idea to brush their teeth at least once a week, and even better, daily.
Trim nails regularly if your dog doesn’t wear them down naturally. If you can hear them clicking on the floor, they’re too long. Short, neatly trimmed nails keep your legs from getting scratched when your Pom enthusiastically jumps up to greet you.
Begin accustoming your Pomeranian to being brushed and examined when he’s a puppy. Handle his paws frequently — dogs are touchy about their feet — and look inside his mouth and ears. Make grooming a positive experience filled with praise and rewards, and you’ll lay the groundwork for easy veterinary exams and other handling when he’s an adult.
As you groom, check for sores, rashes, or signs of infection such as redness, tenderness, or inflammation on the skin, in the ears, nose, mouth, and eyes, and on the feet. Ears should smell good, without too much wax or gunk inside, and eyes should be clear, with no redness or discharge. Your careful weekly exam will help you spot potential health problems early.
Children And Other Pets
The bold and active Pomeranian loves to play, but he’s best suited to a home with older children who can be trusted to handle him carefully. Many breeders refuse to sell puppies to homes with very young children, for good reason. Sturdy though he is, the diminutive Pom is all too easily injured if he’s accidentally dropped or stepped on by a clumsy child.
Always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he’s eating or to try to take the dog’s food away. No dog should ever be left unsupervised with a child.
Pomeranian’s can get along great with cats and other animals, especially if they’re raised with them. Protect them from bigger dogs. Poms don’t realize just how small they are, and they have no fear of challenging bigger dogs.